India And Paris Climate Agreementadmin
Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced last month that India would ratify the agreement on October 2, the anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, leader of Britain`s struggle for independence. According to the report, other nations and the European Union`s objectives do not go far enough to contain global warming between 1.5 and 2 degrees Celsius, and their actions fall short of the targets set when the Paris Agreement was ratified. The projected increase in temperature under these commitments is now expected to exceed 2.7oC by 2100. The report noted that „action to combat climate change must double or triple over the next decade to limit the increase in global average temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius beyond pre-industrial periods, a goal of the Paris Agreement that must „double or triple action to combat climate change over the next decade to reduce emissions by 50% by 2030.“ Even if all voluntary climate pledges are fully implemented, they will cover less than half of what is needed to limit the acceleration of climate change over the next decade,“ said co-author Robert Watson. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of „promises“ or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with „nothing, only promises“ and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Although the enhanced transparency framework is universal, the framework, coupled with the global inventory that takes place every five years, aims to provide „integrated flexibility“ to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.
 The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  The agreement stipulated that it would only enter into force (and therefore fully effective) if 55 countries responsible for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) ratified, approved or ratified the agreement.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016. The ratification by the European Union has achieved a sufficient number of contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets.
The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration.  The 2015 Paris Agreement is the first global commitment of its kind to address the climate crisis.